August 2011 Issue Vol.1 No.8

Toward a 21st Century Crutch Design for Assisting Natural Gait

Hyosang Moon #1, Herbert Baumgartner *2, Nina Patarinsky Robson *3
# Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University,College Station, TX 77843, USA
* Department of Engineering Technology and Industrial Distribution, Texas A&M University,College Station, TX 77843, USA

Abstract: In order to resolve the disadvantages of conventional crutch designs (i.e. underarm and forearm), a novel crutch design is presented with the name of 21st Century Crutch. Prior the design, human natural treadmill walking is monitored by a 3D Motion Capture System and acquired a reference end–foot trajectory with a ‘teardrop shape’. Considering the design objectives, natural human walking and comfort, and other factors such as load capacity and weight of the device, the final design was determined. In order to satisfy the design objectives, a kinematic synthesis previously worked by Robson and McCarthy [14] is applied to test if the end–foot trajectory of designed crutch smoothly follows the desired reference, ‘teardrop shape’ in the vicinity of two specified task points, heel strike and toe off. For that reason the leg was synthesized and animated in Mathematica as a RR planar kinematic chain, where the first hinge joint/fixed pivot was located at the hip and the other hinge joint/moving pivot is at the knee joint. A prototype of the final design was fabricated and its performance was tested by 2 mph treadmill walking.

Keywords: Crutch design, Human walking, Planar chain

An Efficient Approach for Discovering Impact Factor of E-Books using EigenFactor and UCINET

Ms. D. Saraswathi#,Dr. A. Vijaya Kathiravan*, Ms.R.Kavitha#,Mr.G.Sivakumar#
#1Asst. Professor in Computer Science, K.S.Rangasamy. College of Arts & Science, Tiruchengode-637215, Namakkal, TN, INDIA.
*2Asst.Professor in Computer Science, Government Arts College, Salem-07,TN, INDIA.
#3Asst.Professor in Computer Science, Aloysius Institute of Management and Information Technology,Beeri,Kotekar, Mangalore, Karnataka-575922.,,

Abstract: An Impact Factor is one measure of the relative importance of a journal, individual article or scientist to science and social science literature and research. Each index or database used to create an impact factor uses a different methodology and produces slightly different results, revealing the importance of using several sources to judge the true impact of a journal's or scientist’s work. In the web environment, impact factor is measured through the number of hyperlinks counts and number of WebPages. The concept of self-citation is replaced by self-links, i.e., the links within the websites and citation is replaced by in-links, i.e., the links coming outside the websites. As we know, WIF is the logical sum of external and self-link WebPages divided by number of web pages found on that particular websites. There are number of way to find the impact of journal, paper, and Web sites etc. In this proposed system is going to find impact factor of E-books by using EigenFactor and the links of E-books represented by using UCINET software. The link of E-books can identify based on the degree, betweenness of the link. This system is used to measure the quality of E-books and to know how many of them referring the E-book. Most of the E-books are downloaded from the Web or require pages can read from the Web site itself. This was done by means of a citation analysis and a reader survey. For the citation analysis, impact factor, citing half-life, number of references per article, and the rate of self-references of a periodical were used as indicators. Webometric data have been collected through Yahoo! And Google search engines using special query syntax.

Keywords: Scientometrics, Webometrics, Cybermetrics, Bibliometrics, impact factor

Optimization of machining parameters and tool selection in 2.5D milling using Genetic Algorithm

Arun Kumar Gupta#1, Pankaj Chandna#2, Puneet Tandon3
1,2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Kurukshetra, Haryana, INDIA
3Department of Design &Manufacturing, PDPM Indian Institute of Information Technology Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, NDIA
(Corresponding Author E-mail:

Abstract: Optimization of machining parameters for improving the machining efficiency is become important, when high capital cost NC machines have been employed for high precision and efficient machining. The strategy is to minimize the production time and cost by optimizing feed per tooth, speed, width of cut, depth of cut and tool diameter by satisfying all the constraints such as maximum machine power, maximum cutting force, maximum machining speed, feed rate, tool life and required surface roughness. The optimal End milling cutter diameter and radial depth of cut (step over) are also the key issues for minimization of total production cost. Therefore, in this paper an attempt has been made to include all major parameters such as feed per tooth, speed, width of cut (Step-over) and depth of cut along with diameter of tool for minimising the time and production cost during 2.5 D milling. Hence, a mathematical model has been developed and Genetic Algorithm (GA) has been proposed to solve the problem. Optimal values of machining parameters have been calculated for benchmark problems and compared with handbook recommendations. It has been found that approximately 13% of production cost can be reduced by choosing optimal cutter diameter and width of cut. Besides this 50% reduction in cost per unit volume and 61% increment in material removal rate has also been reported by selecting optimal cutting parameters over the handbook recommendations.

Keywords: Optimization of Machining Parameters, 2.5D Milling, End Milling, Genetic Algorithm

Developed Model to Control Congestion on Converge Network

John S. N#1., Okonigene R. E#2., Akinade B.A#3., Kasali. I. #4., Adewale A. A#5.
#1,5Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria.
#2Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria.
#3,4Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria.

Abstract: Congestion control techniques like Active Queue Management (AQM), Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Carrier Detection (CSMA/CD) have not proven to be very efficient in the presence of overwhelming complex converge network. Thus, vast packets in a complex converged network leads to collisions, network degradation and high degree of packet loss. Bandwidth utilization factor has a high effect on the network such that controlling the level of utilization via the management of the number of users and the amount of packets on the network rendered the latency very insignificant. As a consequence of this, high throughput and very minimal packet loss was achieved in the experiment. This was confirmed analytically by varying the utilization factor between 40% and 90% while keeping other parameters in the experiment constant.

Keywords: Congestion, Active Queue Management, Converged Network, Bandwidth.

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