January 2013 Issue Vol.3 No.1
Abstract: Abstract—The integration of various stakeholders, tour operators, travel agencies and non government organization in tourist receiving countries contribute a key significant impact to the host communities (Developing Countries) development. To take the advantages of voluntourism benefit and eradicate the debacle that was characterized from the initial tourism activities (economic, environmental and cultural commodification) thus call for need to institutionalize voluntourism at rural levels. The developing countries therefore must develop agenda that is developmental driven focusing on the efficacy of planning, an action packed program that is implementable with a carefully logical evaluation policies designed to meet the community’s needs and aspirations. To achieve this objective, the methodology adopted is systemic review of relevant literature in exploring the nitty-gritty of tourist role in rural development in Nigeria (African). This paper therefore, reviews the potential benefit of voluntourism as an antidote to rural development particularly in the developing Nations of Africa vis -a- vis their identified attributes of financial assistance, knowledge transfer and skill acquisition, international connection, integrated national endowment via restoration of environment through skill acquisitions, education, cultural immersion, coupled with increase competitiveness and service quality of local economy, integrated development, Proficiency and Efficacy, Image promotion and International Connection, increased capital improvement and investment, focused ideology and ideal platform for local entrepreneurs, wealth creation and equitable distribution and economic development. It is on this premise, that rural revitalization programme and African development can be attained successfully and evaluated in consonance with voluntourism involvement.
Keywords: Rural development, Developing Country, Commodification, Potential, attribute, Voluntourism.
#1 Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology, Murthal, Sonepat-139031
#3 Department of Mathematics, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak-124001
#2Department of Applied Sciences, Matu Ram Institute of Engineering and Management, Rohtak-124001
Abstract: Closed-form analytic expressions for the Airy stress function, stresses and displacements for half-spaces in smooth contact by applying suitable boundary conditions at the interface are first obtained. These expressions are then integrated analytically to derive the Airy stress function for a vertical tensile fault of arbitrary dip and finite width. Closed-form analytical expressions for the displacements and stresses follow immediately from the Airy stress function. The variation of the stresses with the horizontal distance from the fault and with the depth studied numerically. The results obtained in smooth contact are compared with that of welded contact.
Keywords: Deformation, Dyke injection, Vertical tensile fault, Smooth contact, Welded contact.